晴天780 发表于 2022-11-30 17:42:58

追寻黄檗希运禅师的踪迹

<!----><style type="text/css">html{font-size:375%}</style><link href="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/static/publish/css/style.css?v=1605251010499" rel="stylesheet" position="1" data-qf-origin="/static/publish/css/style.css?v=1605251010499"><!--    付费贴-->    <div class="preview_article ">            <!---->    <p>不经一番寒彻骨 怎得梅花扑鼻香</p><p class="empty_paragraph">&nbsp;</p><p>这是大家耳熟能详、传颂千载的诗句,出自唐代黄檗希运禅师的《上堂开示颂》,而这位黄檗希运禅师正是福清人。今年出刊的《黄檗学特刊&middot;隐元禅师纪念号》刊载了李斗石教授的译文《黄檗希运禅师与母亲的故事》。据李教授介绍,这篇文章原载于日本大正六年(1917年)出版的《可怜而悲壮的因缘》(日本河内国本教寺善沢宽成编),此书曾被指定为日本中学《修身》课程的课外读本。</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174007front1_0_155891_FgHBK5GlqGJzGu7UTojgHDBoriB-.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="400" height="539" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174007front1_0_155891_FgHBK5GlqGJzGu7UTojgHDBoriB-.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>希运度母</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>《祖堂集》是日本学者在20世纪20年代于朝鲜发现的现存最早的禅宗史书,书中记载黄檗希运禅师身长七尺,额有肉珠。他的《传心法要》直指人心,是禅的要谛和思想基础。他开创了黄檗禅,开启了临济宗风,是我国历史上一代高僧大德,也是禅宗史上承上启下的宗门大匠。</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174026front1_0_155891_Fu54MNQwkCjsITrVkIXB_4M1wv4p.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="829" height="553" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174026front1_0_155891_Fu54MNQwkCjsITrVkIXB_4M1wv4p.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>黄檗禅师和他母亲的故事,又称&ldquo;希运度母&rdquo;&ldquo;黄檗引导&rdquo;。丁福保《佛学大词典》解释,这个故事是&ldquo;指黄檗希运禅师为母引导之故事。黄檗,闽人,幼年出家,其母哀念而失明。黄檗参礼百丈,得悟后归省,母子虽相见,然互不相识。乡人告之,其母恍然追至福清渡畔,不幸跌溺。黄檗隔岸见之,不禁哀曰:&lsquo;一子出家,九族生天;若不生天,诸佛妄言!&rsquo;乃投炬入河,为母引导。自此,福清渡又改名为大义渡,而此一典故又称黄檗引导。&rdquo;</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174049front1_0_155891_Fl9g-ayc5p-75K9nOEItp4gfBYUT.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1080" height="1439" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174049front1_0_155891_Fl9g-ayc5p-75K9nOEItp4gfBYUT.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p class="empty_paragraph">&nbsp;</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174109front1_0_155891_Fgo-Afbf1HJOfkPRPqDAoBnpkJql.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1280" height="797" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174109front1_0_155891_Fgo-Afbf1HJOfkPRPqDAoBnpkJql.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>邑之西溪</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>成书于五代时期的《祖堂集》也是最早记载黄檗希运禅师的古籍。此书卷十六记载:&ldquo;黄檗和尚,师讳希运,福州闽县人也,自少于黄檗寺出家。&rdquo;丁福保《佛学大词典》记载,黄檗禅师是&ldquo;闽人&rdquo;,但没有说明具体是哪里。黄檗希运禅师到底是哪里人呢?一直以来说法不一,而且能看到的记载都比较笼统。《宋高僧传》和《五灯会元》说他是&ldquo;闽人&rdquo;,《古尊宿语录》说他是&ldquo;福州人&rdquo;,有的古籍根本不说他是哪里人,甚至有的文献说他是江西人。康熙、乾隆两部《福清县志》,也都没有关于黄檗希运禅师的记载。有的网上资料介绍,黄檗希运禅师的老家是福清江阴,还有说他出生在一个叫&ldquo;茶亭&rdquo;的村子。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>即非如一禅师修纂的《福清县志续略》,其中卷十二人物类&mdash;&mdash;&ldquo;黄檗希运禅师&rdquo;一条有这样的记载:&ldquo;师,邑之西溪林氏子。&rdquo;简明扼要的八个字,清楚说明了黄檗希运禅师的家乡所在。接下来还记载了裴休初见黄檗禅师,以及在黄檗禅师&ldquo;裴公在甚么处?&rdquo;顿问下,开悟有省的故事。唐宣宗皇帝听到这件事,把黄檗禅师&ldquo;迎入禁中,受戒三日,指师谓裴相曰:黄檗僧宝,诚国宝也。&rdquo;</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174113front1_0_155891_FsyudTiyaGoYAH38khgWrwhfUy8f.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1080" height="1439" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174113front1_0_155891_FsyudTiyaGoYAH38khgWrwhfUy8f.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>大义渡口</p><p class="empty_paragraph">&nbsp;</p><p>黄檗希运禅师的祖籍解决了,那么黄檗禅师&ldquo;度母&rdquo;的&ldquo;大义渡&rdquo;在哪里?黄檗书院研究员王赞成老师介绍,大义渡位于福建闽江支流义溪旁边,通往省会福州,是唐宋以来南北交通的要道。其遗迹在于今日闽侯县青口镇大义村。村子里有一座观音桥,桥头树立着一块明代&ldquo;中溪桥记&rdquo;石碑,碑文开篇就是这样一句话:&ldquo;中溪桥北五里为大义渡&rdquo;。</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174138front1_0_155891_FrpVBJ8f4C-L5ltmodFQmFfLOCt2.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1080" height="2068" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174138front1_0_155891_FrpVBJ8f4C-L5ltmodFQmFfLOCt2.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p class="empty_paragraph">&nbsp;</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174138front1_0_155891_FkFJp6QJMSvHVUN8ZKf0IUgyMzee.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1280" height="960" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174138front1_0_155891_FkFJp6QJMSvHVUN8ZKf0IUgyMzee.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>今年夏日,我们来到闽侯青口大义村,走访了船尾村村干部老叶,他帮我们找来了80岁的乡贤叶元注和79岁的叶诺云。两位老人家介绍大义渡是过去莆田、福清人去往福州的必由之路,也是南来之人北上江西浙江的唯一水路。而福清人来大义渡,都是从西溪登上古驿道,翻山即可到青口东台村台岭自然村,出村下山不远就是大义渡。大义渡的位置与历史上的福莆古道(福州南驿道&mdash;&mdash;闽侯大田驿&mdash;&mdash;相思岭&mdash;&mdash;福清宏路驿&mdash;&mdash;渔溪&mdash;&mdash;蒜岭&mdash;&mdash;莆田)的线位走向相契合。</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174201front1_0_155891_FprdsXkjkRd85nGSACXsXrDxmmBS.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1280" height="1049" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174201front1_0_155891_FprdsXkjkRd85nGSACXsXrDxmmBS.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>事隔四个月后,我们再次来闽侯,盘山而行,到达台岭村。我们来到一处门牌为42号的山间小院,院外是一条青石铺成的古道。主人正在修篱笆,他告诉我们,这条青石板路就是通往福清的古道,过去福清人去福州坐船,就是从这里下山到渡口,老辈人也是从这条古道去福清卖山货。从地理位置上看,大义渡就在福清西溪的北面,两个地方就隔着一座小山脉。</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174212front1_0_155891_Fucc2En5fugLLt35Ik4XLkFOQULL.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1280" height="960" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174212front1_0_155891_Fucc2En5fugLLt35Ik4XLkFOQULL.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>最是乡愁</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>历代众多禅师都以《大义渡》为名写过诗偈,记述黄檗禅师的母亲在大义渡望断天涯,等待黄檗禅师归来的场景。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>毒海禅师有颂云:</p><p>濯足机先被热瞒,黄金之义铁心肝。</p><p>十成报德酬恩句,万古一江风月寒。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>文礼禅师颂云:</p><p>白头望断万重山,旷劫恩波竭底干。</p><p>不是胸中藏五逆,出家端的报亲难。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>隐元禅师曾作《颂黄檗运和尚隔江度母因缘》:</p><p>天伦义重两相关,万里闻风特地还。</p><p>一掷隔江三昧火,顿超天上与人间。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>即非如禅师写过《题断际运和尚度母图》:</p><p>黄金铸就铁心肝,半偈惊开佛祖关。</p><p>母德如天酬已竟,无双孝道载三山。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>日本景徐周麟禅师写过《大义渡,依茂叔韵》 :</p><p>昔年黄檗出游方,母老思之倚绣床。</p><p>大义渡头天不远,飘飘水佩映风裳。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>日本天隐龙泽禅师《大义渡,为天用居士三十三年忌拈香》:&nbsp;</p><p>一梦入门墓草荒,伤心三十有三霜。</p><p>依然九族生天去,大义渡头秋月凉。</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>希运渡母,孝义千秋。后世之人追慕黄檗禅师,&ldquo;福清渡&rdquo;变成&ldquo;大义渡&rdquo;,逐渐成为乡愁和孝义的象征。</p><p class="empty_paragraph">&nbsp;</p><p>百里植松</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>大义渡还与蔡襄&ldquo;百里植松&rdquo;的故事有关。蔡襄是北宋政治家、书法家,曾出知泉州、福州,《宋史&middot;蔡襄传》记载,在泉州洛阳桥建成之后:又植松七百里以庇道路,闽人刻碑纪德。自此形成一条自福州至泉州、漳州,绵延南北的林荫大道。这里的百姓用《颂蔡君谟》这样一首歌谣,感念这位造福一方的贤官:</p><p>道边松,大义渡至漳泉东。</p><p>问谁植之我蔡公,岁久广阴如云浓。</p><p>甘裳蔽芾安可同,委蛇夭矫腾苍龙。</p><p>行人六月不知暑,千古万古长清风。</p><p class="qf_image big noneditable" contenteditable="false"><img src="https://pic.app.fqlook.com/forum/20221130174243front1_0_155891_FudRkp5f66DA1etRYPRj7wEzXDy-.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" alt="" width="1280" height="960" data-qf-origin="forum/20221130174243front1_0_155891_FudRkp5f66DA1etRYPRj7wEzXDy-.jpg?watermark/3/image/aHR0cHM6Ly9waWMuYXBwLmZxbG9vay5jb20vYWRtaW5fRnYyNzVpbW1Hd0xnX0dTQ29mTWFoR3VkOHBiRC5wbmc=/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/dx/10/dy/65/text/QOaZtOWkqTc4MA==/fontsize/400/dissolve/100/gravity/SouthEast/fill/I2E4YThhOA==/font/5b6u6L2v6ZuF6buR/dx/10/dy/35" /></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>图源、撰文:黄檗禅文化研究院副院长</p><p>白撞雨</p><p>高山</p>    <!----></div>            

改个名字太麻烦 发表于 2022-11-30 20:40:38

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YKQ0327 发表于 2022-11-30 22:08:25

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LYly 发表于 2022-12-1 06:19:05

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梦想何先生 发表于 2022-12-1 08:33:17

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暖心 发表于 2022-12-1 11:29:09

Snkrs 发表于 2022-12-2 09:41:25

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